Iron Age  History of the term The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word 'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records. The primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geologic and geographic surveys, and other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.
Childhood and education[ edit ] Roman girls playing a game Childhood and upbringing in ancient Rome were determined by social status, wealth and gender.
Roman children played a number of games, and their toys are known from archaeology and literary sources. Animal figures were popular, and some children kept live animals and birds as pets. Dolls are sometimes found in the tombs of those who died before adulthood. Girls coming of age dedicated their dolls to Dianathe goddess most concerned with girlhood, or to Venus when they were preparing for marriage.
Marriage facilitated a partnership between the father and prospective husbands, and enabled the formation of a mutually beneficial alliance with both political and economic incentives at heart.
Both genders participated in religious festivals ; for example, at the Secular Games of 17 BC, the Carmen Saeculare was sung by a choir of girls and boys. Children of the elite were taught Greek as well as Latin from an early age. Epictetus suggests that at the age of 14, girls were considered to be on the brink of womanhood, and beginning to understand the inevitability of their future role as wives.
They learned modesty through explicit instruction and upbringing.
The rape of an unmarried girl posed a threat to her reputation and marriageability, and the penalty of death was sometimes imposed on the unchaste daughter. The legislation also imposed penalties on young persons who failed to marry and on those who committed adultery.
Therefore, marriage and childbearing was made law between the ages of twenty-five and sixty for men, and twenty and fifty for women.
Pater familias Both daughters and sons were subject to patria potestasthe power wielded by their father as head of household familia.
A Roman household was considered a collective corpus, a "body" over which the pater familias had mastery dominium. Slaves, who had no legal standing, were part of the household as property. In the early Empire, the legal standing of daughters differed little if at all from that of sons.
Even apart from legal status, daughters seem no less esteemed within the Roman family than sons, though sons were expected to ensure family standing by following their fathers into public life. Technically, the couple had to be old enough to consent, but the age of consent was 12 for girls and 14 for boys, though in practice boys seem to have been on average five years older.
Among the elite, 14 was the age of transition from childhood to adolescence,  but a betrothal might be arranged for political reasons when the couple were too young to marry,  and in general noble women married younger than women of the lower classes. Most Roman women would have married in their late teens to early twenties.
An aristocratic girl was expected to be a virgin when she married, as her young age might indicate. After arranging his daughter's first two marriages, Cicero disapproved — rightly, as it turned out — of her choice to marry the unreliable Dolabellabut found himself unable to prevent it.
Children usually took the father's name. In the Imperial period, however, children might sometimes make their mother's family name part of theirs, or even adopt it instead.
Pudicitia chastity was a goddess of feminine purity, and was worshipped by Roman women. Only those who were virgins were allowed to enter the temple. In Roman houses it was common for men and women to each have their own cubicula, allowing potential for them to engage in sex lives separate from each other.
While it was expected that women should only have sexual relations with their husbands, it was common for men to have many sexual partners throughout his life. For example, Julius Caesar's first wife, Pompeiahighlights this point well as she attempted to have private relations with Publius Clodius.
Julius Caesar's mother, Aurelia, monitored Pompeia's actions and prevented their private meetings. The mere possibility of Pompeia committing adultery caused Caesar to divorce her. This general campaign to improve family dynamics began in 18—17 BC. Additionally, Augustus enforced the divorce and punishment of adulterous wives.
Women under his rule could be punished in the courts for adultery and banished.
This shifted a woman's body and relationships from being private, to become a public matter that could be regulated. Therefore, the palace was secured and driven by this idea that women would be returned to their proper places as chaste wives and mothers, and thus household order would be restored.
Augustus went so far as to punish and exile his own daughter, Julia, for engaging in extramarrital affairs.If women looked like this in prehistoric days, somebody find me a time machine fast!!.
Every girl in this film is gorgeous from blonde to brunette!. The blonde slave girls a /5(19). Our ancestors were FEMINISTS: Hunter-gatherer women forced early man to spend time with the IN-LAWS, study claims Researchers lived among hunter-gatherers in Congo and the Philippines.
For more, visit TIME Health. Today’s athletes may be strong, but they’ve got nothing on prehistoric women who spent their days harvesting crops and grinding grain. According to a . But even when compared with women on Cambridge’s championship rowing team, the prehistoric women’s arms were % stronger for their size.
Watch video · Our ancestors were FEMINISTS: Hunter-gatherer women forced early man to spend time with the IN-LAWS, study claims Our ancestors were FEMINISTS: Hunter-gatherer women forced early man to spend time. This "Prehistoric" period — before writing and civilizations — is called the Stone Age and is extremely valuable to our understanding of our earliest hominid ancestors.
Hominids comprise humans today, extinct ancestors, and apes that share similarities with humans.