Long run declining average costs in a natural monopoly. Certain types of taxes and tariffs.
You can help by adding to it. September Third sector[ edit ] Social economy studies the relationship between economy and social behavior.
It analyzes how consumer behavior is influenced by social morals, ethics and other humanitarian philosophies. The social economy examines activity that is related to economics amongst the community and exposes the information to the community, this includes the social enterprise and voluntary sectors.
By using solutions to achieve not-for-profit aims, a social economy has a unique role in creating a strong, sustainable, prosperous and inclusive society. It is important for companies to be able to independently implement their own CSR initiatives as studies have shown that this will result be much more impactful than government-mandated CSR initiatives.
Increasing productivity and competitiveness Contributing to socially-inclusive wealth creation Enabling individuals and communities to renew local neighbourhoods Demonstrating new ways to deliver public services Developing an inclusive society and active citizenship Defining the limits of a social-economy sector is difficult due to shifting politics and economics; at any time organisations may be "partly in, partly out", moving among sub-sectors of the social economy.
Social enterprise compass[ edit ] Organisations may be placed on the social enterprise compass, which measures enterprises and organisations on a continuum between the private and public sectors. Horizontal axis On the horizontal axis, each enterprise or organisation is categorized by its ownership.
On the left side ownership is by public authorities, and on the right side it is private industry. The owners supply financial capital and bear any risk.
Vertical axis On the vertical axis each enterprise or organisation is categorized by its primary objective, from "social purpose" at the top to "commercial purpose" at the bottom.
Social purpose is the primary objective of the enterprise if it meets the following criteria: Core definition Mission key identification: Social economic creation of value and appropriation of earnings qualitative key identification: Profits and resources are verifiably reinvested for the benefit of disadvantaged people.
If these criteria are met, an organisation is at the top of the vertical axis. One criterion is a descriptive feature: Social economical enterprises and organisations have an intermediary function between public and private.
If none of the above criteria is met, or the primary object of the enterprise is commercial, it is located at the bottom of the vertical axis.
Between social and commercial purposes If the above criteria are partially met, the enterprise is located along the vertical axis according to its self-definition. The Social Economy is made up of association-based economic activities founded on values of: Service to members or the community rather than only generating profits and seeking financial returns; Autonomous management not government controlled ; Democratic decision making; Primacy of persons and work over capital; Based on principles of participation, empowerment and individual and collective responsibility.
The Social Economy includes: The Canadian Community Economic Development Network CCEDNet is a national member-led organization committed to strengthening Canadian communities by creating economic opportunities that enhance social and environmental conditions.ECOSOC MEMBERS.
The Council's 54 member Governments are elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allotted based on geographical representation.
Welfare economics is a branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate well-being (welfare) at the aggregate (economy-wide) level.
A typical methodology begins with the derivation (or assumption) of a social welfare function, which can then be used to rank economically feasible allocations of resources in terms of the social welfare they entail.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights The Covenant in general The ICESCR aims to ensure the protection of economic, social. Institute for Social and Economic Change: Established in by Professor V K R V Rao, ISEC is an All-India Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and Training in the Social Sciences.
What are the functions of the Economic and Social council of U.N.O? It consists of 18 members elected by the General Assembly, one-third retiring after every three years. Retiring members are eligible for.
The Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC - coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and institutions, as well as their functional commissions and five regional commissions known as "the United Nations family" of organizations.