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I write this with the hope of bringing some clarity to these issues, and to encourage further discussion. It implies that these organizations at some point found fault with the brainwashing model, which is simply not the case because, as organizations, the APA and the ASA are not in the business of endorsing or rejecting theories.
First, one must understand that the APA and the ASA are two membership organizations, which professionals in their respective fields may join for an annual fee.
Both organizations have thousands of members and numerous divisions, committees, and subcommittees; both sponsor annual meetings, where papers are presented and theories and viewpoints are discussed and debated.
The representative there told me explicitly and officially that the APA has no position on thought reform, coercive persuasion, or brainwashing, and that there has never been a position.
The APA spokesperson explained that in the s a Task Force report related to this topic was not accepted because it was not clear. This manual is used by mental health professionals around the country, and presumably most are members of the psychological association.
Recently, Zimbardo was elected president of the APA; his term is now over. Similarly, psychiatrist Robert Lifton recently wrote an article about cult formation for The Harvard Mental Health Letter a reputable and widely read publication. The word brainwashing comes from a literal translation of a colloquial Chinese term hsi nao used by the Chinese to describe the indoctrination techniques used by the Chinese Communists.
The word was first introduced in English by an American journalist working undercover for the U. In an essay published inLifton addressed this very issue when he wrote: I do not use the word brainwashing because it has no precise meaning and has been associated with much confusion.
It must also be added that thought reform, and totalism in general, are not necessarily illegal, however we may deplore them. In it, he reiterated that one characteristic of cults is the use of a series of psychological processes known as thought reform. To Lifton, the link is clear.
Another assertion often made is that unless a person is imprisoned or physically confined, brainwashing or thought reform cannot take place.
Besides, the apologists and sympathizers say, there are no empirical studies showing evidence. This is another distortion. In fact, Lifton and other respected scholars such as Edgar Schein state repeatedly that for thought reform or ideological remolding to take place, the person does not need to be physically confined or directly subjected to physical torture or harm.
He did not see his work as confined to the study of an unusual and powerful process found only in Communist China; rather, Lifton regarded his research as an exploration of issues of identity and ideology, and ended the book with summaries of some modern-day, Western applications.
To this day, Lifton stands by his work and continues to use it to describe cult settings see, for one, his book Destroying the World to Save It: Social psychologist Edgar Schein, another early researcher of these processes, published his findings in in a book entitled Coercive Persuasion.
The term coercion is applicable to the entire continuum of forces ranging from small constraints imposed by the very nature of the moral order governing interpersonal relationships to very sizable constraints which derive from a combination of physical and social forces such as those found in Chinese Communist group cells.
In other words, many more influence situations are really instances of coercive persuasion than might at first blush seem to be the case. This has had the effect of derailing the efforts at rapprochement made by families and friends of those who have been subjected to this form of undue influence.
It has also had a disruptive and at times stifling effect on research and educational efforts made by those of us in the field.
What About the Barker Study? Barker found that out of more than 1, people who attended their first Moonie event, about Now, what do those figures tell us? Are we overestimating the successes of cult recruiters?
To paraphrase Langone Au contraire, I must reply. These are not easy issues. As most families who have been touched by this phenomenon and as many, many former cult members can attest, an extremely sophisticated understanding of the dynamics present in cultic groups is required in order to get a handle on what transpires and how individuals may or may not be affected.
Here are the typical signposts: References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed.Multiple Personality Disorder Essay Examples.
50 total results. A Description of the Multiple Personality Disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder.
2, words. 6 pages. The Increase in the Number of Cases of Multiple Personaliy Disorder. 2, words. 6 pages. The History and Mental Changes That Occur in People with Multiple Personality. Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative identity disorder (DID), which is formerly known as multiple personality disorder, is a severe form of dissociation, which is a mental process, producing a lack of connection in an individual’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity.
The disease is where two or more personalities simultaneously existing within a person . Oct 01, · Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the name that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-Text evision (DSM-IV-T) uses for the disorder previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association [APA], ).
A person with Dissociative Identity Disorder presents as having the appearance of at least two distinct personalities within one person. “These personalities, or “alters,” can have profoundly different voices, speech patterns, self-descriptions, memories, character traits, beliefs, desires, and levels of education.
Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is a chronic (recurring frequently) emotional illness. A person with MPD plays host to two or more personalities (called alters). Each alter has its own unique style of viewing and understanding the world and may have its own name. These distinct personalities.
On the Brainwashing Controversy by Janja Lalich, Ph.D. DO NOT CITE OR REPRINT WITHOUT AUTHOR’S PERMISSION. Thanks to the disinformation being spread far and wide, and now most especially on the Internet, many professionals and laypersons interested in issues related to psychological influence, extremism, new religious movements, and cultic groups are being confused by several assertions put.