How are street gangs different from other criminal groups, such as organized crime groups, motorcycle gangs, ideology groups, and prison gangs?
Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expecta- tions were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambiv- alent experiences or intentions.
Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psy- chotropic medication. Because African Americans have rates of untreated mental health needs that are higher than other groups, and because African Ameri- cans are disproportionately exposed to traumatic events such as community violence, the disparity in mental health services is a pressing public health problem Roberts et al.
Public Health Service Despite a large body of research on mental health service use by African American youth e. The limited research available has suggested that, among youth, boys are more likely to receive services than girls Angold et al.
Recent research has suggested that past experiences with mental health services may be related to expectations about services and that expectations in turn might relate to intentions to use services Kerkorian et al.
As well, child welfare systems are often the means by which African American children and youth access mental health services Lyons and Rogersbut there has been little research on the role of expectations, experiences, and intentions in these settings Thompson et al.
Wallis Washington University, St.
Experiences with mental health service are prior encounters with mental health services either for oneself, family members, or friends Thompson et al. The theory of planned behavior TPB; Ajzenan expan- sion of TRA that included perceived and actual control over behavior to take into account this discrepancy.
Despite this difference, both TRA and TPB predict that intentions to engage in treatment arise from expectations about how useful, coercive, and sensitive treatment would be and the possible negative outcomes of treatment Cauce et al. Similar links have been found between expectations and intentions for cancer screening for African Americans Ross et al.
Negative aspects of experiences with mental health services for African Americans include inappropriately prescribed psychotropic medications and attendant side effects Jaycox et al.
Negative experiences with mental health services have been linked to negative expectations about possible future mental health service use. Given the fact that African Americans are more likely than other ethnic groups to have negative experiences with mental health services, it is not surprising that African Americans also have more negative expecta- tions around mental health services Brown et al.
Expectations are linked to intentions to seek or continue mental health services for African American adults. Expec- tations that treatment will be helpful and relevant are pre- dictive of increased intentions to seek treatment, both for oneself Gonzalez et al.
On the other hand, for African Americans, expectations that treatment will include unhelpful or harmful medication Leis et al. Limited research has also revealed that African Americans frequently have ambivalent experiences with mental health services Thompson et al. The purpose of this research was to examine qualita- tively the links among expectations about mental health services, experiences with mental health services and intentions about mental health services in African Ameri- can mothers and their youth from a low-income urban community with a high rate of child welfare involvement.
The research questions were: Do mothers and youth who report positive expecta- tions about mental health services also report positive experiences with mental health services and positive intentions to seek mental health services in the future?
Do mothers and youth who report negative expecta- tions about mental health services also report negative experiences with mental health services and negative intentions to seek mental health services in the future?
Do mothers and youth who report ambivalent expec- tations about mental health services experiences also report ambivalent experiences with mental health services and ambivalent intentions to seek mental health services in the future?
While a full description of the research methods can be found in a previous publication Thompson et al. Sample The sample was drawn from the Capella Project, a larger longitudinal quantitative study of the long-term outcomes of child abuse and neglect for mother—youth dyads who were followed from infancy through young adult- hood.
The Capella Project sampled mother—infant dyads from districts that were high in poverty and high in rates of calls to child protective services.
Two-thirds of the Capella Project sample was African American.Qualitative Research Methods in Drug Abuse and AIDS Prevention Research: An (, p. 79) remarked that despite the existence of numerous excellent qualitative studies on drug abuse, “Ethnographers have had difficulty explaining precisely what they do.” data collection and analysis that have become critical dimensions in drug abuse.
Zone’in Fact Sheet. A research review regarding the impact of technology on child development, behavior, and academic performance.
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|Adolescence - Wikipedia||Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the Balkansknown as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah.|
|Discover the world's research||Worldwide[ edit ] Several meta-analyses find extensive evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring in the North American and European labor markets. In the ancient dynastic eras, to be light in an environment in which the sun was harsh implied wealth and nobility because those individuals were able to remain indoors while servants had to labor outside.|
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International Bible Way Church of Jesus Christ, is an organization where Christ is the main focus. We believe the Bible is the true Word of God. Two studies used auto-regressive analyses where the cross-lagged relationship between adolescent and peer smoking (Tucker et al., ) or substance use (Simons-Morton and Chen, ) at each time point was examined.
Both studies found evidence of reciprocal effects of socialization and selection.